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PSY4604 Fall 2012

Ch 1 through 8

QuestionAnswer
Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy? An interest in the same kinds of questions about human nature
Which theory suggests that “the times make the person”? naturalistic
"The man makes the times," reflects which view of history? personalistic
The stage in the development of a science when it is still divided into schools of thought is called ____. preparadigmatic
When ____ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him Francis Sumner
The _____ theory would support the claim: “Freud was instrumental in discovering psychoanalysis. If not for Freud, no other psychologist would have been able to undercover the human psyche.” personalistic
The hallmark of psychology's separation from philosophy was its reliance on ____. experimentation
In contrast to the events that are studied in science, historical events cannot be ____. repeated
Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history? naturalistic
In the 1970s, the publication of the research of John Garcia was significantly delayed because ____. his findings challenged the prevailing view in stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory
The term "Zeitgeist" refers to ____. the intellectual and cultural climate of the times
In the first years of psychology's emergence as a new discipline, which man determined its direction? Wilhelm Wundt
According to the textbook, psychology as a discipline has ____. engaged in the discriminatory practices that mark American culture as a whole
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ____ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German. free association
The various schools of thought in psychology have served well as systems to be opposed. In each case, ____ was the consequence. a new school of thought
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who ____. altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers
In Kuhn's philosophy of science, when Einstein's theory of relativity replaced Galilean-Newtonian physics, a(n) ____ occurred. scientific revolution
The contextual forces in psychology deal with the ____. social, economical, and political factors that influenced the field.
The term historiography refers to ____. the techniques, principles, and issues involved in historical research
The three contextual forces in the history of psychology were ____. economic opportunities, wars, and discrimination
Materialism is the belief that ____. all things can be described in physical terms
Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics? effects are predictable and measurable
Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology? Descartes
Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of ____ apply. mechanics
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____. reductionism
Which of the following statements best describes Descartes' dualistic theory of human nature? The mind and body mutually influence each other's actions
John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, ____. the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas
Which philosopher believed that the only things that humans know with certainty are those objects that are perceived? George Berkeley
For Locke, ideas are the result of ____. sensations and reflection
The idea that science should be based totally on objectively observable facts is called ____. positivism
According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____. mechanism
____ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things. Automata
According to Locke, simple ideas become complex ideas through the process of ____. reflection
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to ____. the mind-body problem
Hartley was the first to apply the theory of association to explain ____. all mental activity
The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is ____. determinism
For Locke, the difference between a simple and a complex idea is that a simple idea ____. cannot be reduced
Complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities. This is a definition of ____. John Stuart Mill's creative synthesis
Derived ideas ____. arise from the direct application of an external stimulus
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is ____. mechanism
Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology? Descartes
James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a(n) ___. machine
Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of ____ apply. mechanics
Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of ____. Comte
Which British empiricist championed women's rights and condemned the unequal status of women? John Stuart Mill
the most radically mechanistic of the Brit empiricists,claimed the mind is machine & there's no freedom of will; believed the mind is a passive entity & all thought can be analyzed in terms of sensations. James Mill
While Hartley's fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed. contiguity; repetition
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____. reductionism
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____. experience
John Locke disagreed with the doctrine of innate ideas. According to Locke, ____. the mind is a blank slate at birth; therefore, there are no innate ideas
According to Descartes, the pineal gland was the part of the brain ____. where the mind and body interact
The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____. Newton and Galileo
Why was the mechanical clock a revolutionary invention? Clocks brought precision, regularity, and predictability to everyday life, which was later developed into a model for science.
For Locke, the difference between a simple and a complex idea is that a simple idea ____. cannot be reduced
The doctrine of ____ is important because it stimulated opposition among early empiricists and associationists. innate ideas
____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence. Babbage's calculating machine
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is ____. mechanism
Materialism is the belief that ____. all things can be described in physical terms
What was the significance of the defecating duck? 1. It demonstrated the Zeitgeist of the time. 2. It was one example of the spirit of mechanism. 3. It was widely popular and well-known. 4. All of the above. 100% 5. It was described as the “glory of France.”
Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that ____. the mind influenced the body
Ebbinghaus' curve of forgetting shows that ____. material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was ____. consciousness
Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt's approach, claimed that psychology should ____. study mental processes or functions and not mental structure
The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to ____. Brentano
Wundt's system is most accurately identified as ____. experimental psychology
In Wundt's laboratory, introspection was used to assess ____. immediate experience
Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics? intensity, duration, and sense modality
Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt's experimental conditions? Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences.
Given that many of his research findings remain valid today, ____ can be seen as more influential than ____. Ebbinghaus; Wundt
Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe's view is known as ____. imageless thought
Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he ____. successfully challenged Wundt's claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory
Brentano’s system of psychology was called ____ psychology. Act
Stumpf's method of observation was ____. phenomenology
Which of the following methods is defined as “the examination of experience as it occurred without any attempt to reduce experience to elementary components.” Phenomenology
Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because ____. they were influenced by language and aspects thereof
Other than Stumpf's research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been ____. educating the founders of Gestalt psychology
Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings? pleasure/displeasure; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression.
This person was influenced by Fechner's rigid and systematic use of measurement in developing his own methods for researching higher level cognitive processes. Hermann Ebbinghaus
In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could ____. not pay attention to two things at once
While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong? Ebbinghaus
One of Helmholtz's particular contributions to psychology was his work on ____. vision
The practice of psychosurgery such as prefrontal lobotomies, has its roots in the ____. extirpation method
The most effective criticisms of phrenology came from whom? Flourens
____ created phrenology, which proposed that the topography of a person's skull revealed his or her intellectual and emotional characteristics. Gall
The representation of the nervous system as a complex switching system reveals the 19th-century reliance on ____. mechanism
How did the British empiricists (BritE) and the German physiologists (GerP) differ in their approach to the study of the senses? The BritE studied the senses from the viewpoint of philosophy. The GerP used scientific methods to study the senses.
____ discovered the law, S = K log R. Fechner
What is the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli? just noticeable difference
____ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement. Hall
Who developed both the two-point threshold and the concept of the just noticeable difference? Weber
Weber's Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the ____. just noticeable difference
Until the work of ____, experimentation was not the preferred method in physiology. J. Müller
The researcher credited with the finding or conclusion that nerve impulses are electrical within the neuron is ____. Galvani
In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including ____. physics and chemistry only
Who discovered the direction of travel of nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord? Cajal
____ discovered, among other things, that the brain had both white and gray matter, and that fiber connect the two halves of the brain. Gall
Fechner's work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that ____. psychology could never be a science
The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was ____. the inductive method
In modern medicine, the cause of a person's dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, ____ clinical research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology. Broca's
With regard to the speed of the nerve impulse, perhaps the most important conclusion of Helmholtz's research for psychology was the determination ____. that thought and movement are not simultaneous
J Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this ____. the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves
Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition? Helmholtz
The calculation of the mean of a group of scores is the same as Fechner's ____. method of average error
____ systematically destroyed parts of the brain using extirpation. psychology could never be a science
In Fechner's Law as one variable increases arithmetically, the other variable increases ____. geometrically
The point of sensitivity below which no sensation can be detected and above which sensation can be experienced is a definition of the ____. absolute threshold
Fechner's flash of insight about the mind-body connection was that there is a(n) ____ relationship between a mental sensation and a material stimulus. quantitative
Fechner's most important contribution to psychology was the ____. quantification of the mind-body relationship
German universities were especially fertile ground for scientific advances because ____. there was academic freedom for students and faculty alike
Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship ____. had not been suggested to him by Weber's work
Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because ____. they were influenced by language and aspects thereof
For Brentano, the primary research method was ____. observation
Wundtian psychology in Germany was slow to develop because ____. it was not seen as having practical value
For Wundt, feelings are ____. based on three dimensions including pleasure/displeasure
Wundt classified sensations according to which characteristics? intensity, duration, and sense modality
According to Wundt, there were two elementary forms of experience, namely ____. sensation and feelings
This person was influenced by Fechner's rigid and systematic use of measurement in developing his own methods for researching higher level cognitive processes Hermann Ebbinghaus
The fundamental purpose of creating nonsense syllables was to ____. control for previous learning
The ultimate fate of Wundt's laboratory at Leipzig was that it ____. was destroyed by allied bombing raids in World War II
In his early work when he was his own experimental subject, the 29-year-old Wilhelm Wundt found that he could ____. not pay attention to two things at once
Wundt's modification of introspection was the ____. use of experimental controls
Which of the following methods is defined as “the examination of experience as it occurred without any attempt to reduce experience to elementary components.” Phenomenology
Stumpf and Wundt engaged in a bitter fight over the topic of ____. the introspection of tones
The significance of Ebbinghaus's work is in his ____. rigorous use of experimental control and his quantitative analysis of data
Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its ____. use of the experimental method
Wundt's system is most accurately identified as ____. experimental psychology
In 1867, Wundt offered the first course ever given in ____. physiological psychology
____ work on ____ was the first "venture into a truly psychological problem area" rather than on physiology. Ebbinghaus'; learning
While Wundt had argued that learning and memory could not be studied experimentally, who soon proved him wrong? Ebbinghaus
Wundt's doctrine of apperception refers to ____. the process of organizing mental elements into a whole
Ebbinghaus' curve of forgetting shows that ____. material is forgotten rapidly in the first hours after learning and then the forgetting slows down
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was ____. consciousness
Act psychology, in contrast to Wundt's approach, claimed that psychology should ____. study mental processes or functions and not mental structure
The subject matter of psychology is the act of experiencing, according to ____. Brentano
In Wundt's laboratory, introspection was used to assess ____. immediate experience
Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt's experimental conditions? Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences.
Given that many of his research findings remain valid today, ____ can be seen as more influential than ____. Ebbinghaus; Wundt
Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe's view is known as ____. imageless thought
Ebbinghaus is important for the history of psychology because he ____. successfully challenged Wundt's claim that higher mental processes, such as learning and memory, could not be studied in the laboratory
Brentano’s system of psychology was called ____ psychology. Act
Stumpf's method of observation was ____. phenomenology
Other than Stumpf's research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been ____. educating the founders of Gestalt psychology
Which of the following are the three dimensions of Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feelings? pleasure/displeasure; tension/relaxation; excitement/depression.
Wundt's term voluntarism reflects his emphasis on the ____. power of the will to organize the contents of the mind
The first system or school of thought in psychology was called ____. voluntarism by Wundt
Titchener noted that the first significant advance in the study of learning since Aristotle was ____. the development of the nonsense syllable
Research suggests that many psychology historians consider ____ to be the most important psychologist of all time. Wundt
The Gestalt psychologists' best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt's principle of ____. apperception
Wundt's theory of feelings was based on ____. his own introspections
Who discovered the direction of travel of nerve impulses in the brain and spinal cord? Cajal
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____. experience
In modern medicine, the cause of a person's dementia typically cannot be determined until autopsy. Thus, ____ clinical research method continues to be of significance in medicine and psychology. Broca's
Descartes proposed that the mind produces two kinds of ideas, ____ and ____. derived; innate
The response of salivation following the stimulus of food on the tongue is an illustration of Descartes' ____ reflex action theory
The point of sensitivity below which no sensation can be detected and above which sensation can be experienced is a definition of the ____. absolute threshold
____ was a pioneer in research on reflex behavior showing that reflexes could occur in the absence of brain involvement. Hall
Which British empiricist championed women's rights and condemned the unequal status of women? John Stuart Mill
James Mill demonstrated a radical perspective because he believed that the mind is a(n) ___. machine
Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship ____. had not been suggested to him by Weber's work
Which of the following is an example of an innate idea? infinity
J. Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this ____. the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves
Skinner's self-discipline as a student and Freud's being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that ____. participants may themselves produce biased accounts
Modern psychology differs from philosophy in which of the following ways? Modern psychology uses objective methods to study questions. Philosophy depends upon speculation and intuition in order to answer questions.
Both the term and concept of positivism represent the thought of ____. Comte
Currently, psychology ____. has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms and may be more fragmented than at any time in its history
What was the significance of the defecating duck? 1. All of the above. 100% 2. It was widely popular and well-known. 3. It was described as the “glory of France.” 4. It demonstrated the Zeitgeist of the time. 5. It was one example of the spirit of mechanism.
____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence. Babbage's calculating machine
For Locke, ideas are the result of ____. sensations and reflection
When ____ enrolled as a graduate student at Clark University, the administration arranged a separate dining table for her/him. Francis Sumner
Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as ____. All of the choices are correct
One of Helmholtz's particular contributions to psychology was his work on ____. vision
While Hartley's fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed. contiguity; repetition
Modern psychology shares which of the following characteristics with ancient Greek philosophy? An interest in the same kinds of questions about human nature
In the 19th century, the British and French defined science as including ____. physics and chemistry only
Simultaneous discovery favors which view of history? naturalistic
Fechner's work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that ____. psychology could never be a science
Who devised a theory of color vision as well as conducted research on audition? Helmholtz
Derived ideas ____. arise from the direct application of an external stimulus
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ____ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German. free association
Complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities. This is a definition of ____. John Stuart Mill's creative synthesis
The idea of a house is an example of Descartes' notion of ____. derived ideas
As a scientific discipline, psychology is ____. one of the newest and one of the oldest
A school of thought emerges whenever ____. a group shares a theoretical orientation and investigates similar problems
Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____. experience
According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____. mechanism
Currently, psychology ____. has been described as a sequence of failed paradigms and may be more fragmented than at any time in its history
Which psychologist burned his/her own letters, manuscripts, and research notes before s/he died? John Watson
The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____. Newton and Galileo
The terms ego and id, which do not precisely represent Freud's ideas, are examples of ____. data distorted by translation
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to ____. the mind-body problem
The term "Zeitgeist" refers to ____. the intellectual and cultural climate of the times
An "autobiography" of Jung was evidently written not by Jung but by an assistant who ____. altered and/or deleted some of Jung's writings to present him in a manner suiting his family and followers
Even when some women were admitted to graduate programs in psychology, they still encountered many barriers to their success, such as ____. All of the choices are correct
Weber's Law, the formulation of how much change in a stimulus is required for a subject to detect it, rests on the measurement of the ____. just noticeable difference
____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence. Babbage's calculating machine
Late in his career, Fechner noted that the idea for describing the mind-body relationship ____. had not been suggested to him by Weber's work
While Hartley's fundamental law of association was ____, he also proposed that ____ was necessary for associations to be formed. contiguity; repetition
Freud's idea "Einfall" was translated to English into the term ____ which means something other than what Freud implied in the original German. free association
J Müller found that nerves only give information characteristic of the sense associated with it. This means that when an auditory nerve is stimulated, it will result in someone hearing a sound, even when no noise is present. Müller called this ____. the doctrine of the specific energies of nerves
Descartes makes a case that because the body is matter the laws of ____ apply. mechanics
____ discovered the law, S = K log R. Fechner
Perhaps the most valuable outcome of the study of the history of psychology is that one will learn the ____. relationships among psychology's ideas, theories, and research strategies
Fechner's work had proved Immanuel Kant wrong when Kant said that ____. psychology could never be a science
Skinner's self-discipline as a student and Freud's being ignored and rejected early in his career indicated that ____. participants may themselves produce biased accounts
The method of logic that characterizes psychology and that was favored in Germany of the 19th century was ____. the inductive method
The most effective criticisms of phrenology came from whom? Flourens
For Descartes, the application of mathematical principles to sciences would produce ____. certainty of knowledge
The calculation of the mean of a group of scores is the same as Fechner's ____. method of average error
What was the most influential doctrine to modern psychology? Empiricism
Other than Stumpf's research, his greatest influence on psychology may have been ____. educating the founders of Gestalt psychology
In Wundt's laboratory, introspection was used to assess ____. immediate experience
The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by ____. Romanes
The Gestalt psychologists' best-known tenet is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This same tenet was alleged in Wundt's principle of ____. apperception
For Wundt, the subject matter of psychology was ____. consciousness
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ____. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult
According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect ____. the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans
The sum of our experiences as they exist at a particular moment is Titchener's definition of ____. consciousness
For Wundt, feelings are ____. based on three dimensions including pleasure/displeasure
According to Wundt, psychology should be concerned with the study of ____. immediate experience
Wundt argued that cognitive processes such as learning and memory could not be studied by experimental methods because ____. they were influenced by language and aspects thereof
Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work? 1. statistical techniques 2. testing methods 3. All of the above. 100% 4. heredity 5. child development
Which of the following is NOT one of Wundt's experimental conditions? Observers must be able to describe the qualitative aspects of their experiences.
____ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory. Lyell
Wundt's system is most accurately identified as ____. experimental psychology
Wundt's theory of feelings was based on ____. his own introspections
Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency? Quetelet
Ebbinghaus measured the rate of human learning by ____. counting the number of repetitions needed for one perfect reproduction of the material
Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was ____ to them. kind and helpful
Külpe's method emphasized all of the following except ____. investigating unconscious processes
Wundt established psychology as distinct from philosophy primarily in terms of its ____. use of the experimental method
The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____. Darwin's evidence
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to ____. develop a working vocabulary free of meaning
The psychological study of music was pioneered by ____. Stumpf
Külpe opposed Wundt by claiming that conscious thought processes can be carried out without the presence of sensations or feelings. Külpe's view is known as ____. imageless thought
Because some time elapsed between the experience and the reporting of it, critics charged that introspection was really a form of ____. retrospection
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including ____. apperception
Galton’s Hereditary Genius was mainly concerned with ____. a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring
Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed? Quetelet
Galton's measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____. acuteness of the senses
For Titchener, distinct sensations combined with others to form ____. perceptions and ideas
Toward the end of Titchener's career, he came to favor the ____ method instead of the ____ method. phenomenological; introspective
Titchener's definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is ____. conscious experience
According to the textbook, a significant contribution of structuralism was ____. its service as a target for criticism
Titchener discarded aspects of Wundt's system, including ____. apperception
In his treatment of women, Titchener ____. demonstrated both support of and obstruction of women in psychology
Who scolded Titchener for still practicing "a very old fashioned standpoint" in excluding women from psychology meetings? Ladd-Franklin
By the 1920s the term used by Titchener for his system of psychology was ____. existential
____ was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology. Margaret Floy Washburn
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by Titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to ____. develop a working vocabulary free of meaning
Titchener excluded women from the meetings of the Titchener Experimentalists because women: were too pure to smoke.
One of the main reasons that Titchener's thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener ____. translated Wundt's books from German into English
Titchener opposed the development of areas such as child psychology and animal psychology because ____. these areas did not focus on discovering the structures of mind
Feelings or emotions lack clearness because ____. if we focus on them to determine clearness, the feeling or emotion disappears.
The influence of mechanism on Titchener is exemplified in his ____. use of the chemistry term reagents instead of observers
Titchener's research identified three elements of consciousness: sensations, affective states, and ____. images
Titchener's research led him to conclude that affective states had only ____ dimension(s); namely ____. one; pleasure/displeasure
In addition to introspection, another criticism of Titchener's system was its ____. artificiality and sterility
Provided that students and colleagues were properly respectful, Titchener was ____ to them. kind and helpful
In his introspection experiments, Titchener wanted his subjects (observers) to ____. be passive recorders of the experiences registering on the conscious mind
Which of the of the following statements best summarizes the protest of functional psychology against Wundt and Titchener? Functional psychology claimed that Wundt's and Titchener's approaches were too restrictive because they did not study the practical value of mental processes.
To study mental imagery, Galton used which self-report method? the questionnaire
____ was a confidant of Darwin who introduced the concept of evolution into geological theory. Lyell
The work of Romanes was especially flawed because of his ____. use of the anecdotal method
According to Darwin, human emotional expressions reflect ____. the inheritance of animal responses that may not be adaptive for humans
Galton found that a substantial proportion of word associations were evidence of ____. the effects of childhood experiences on the adult
Today, our acceptance that the study of individual differences is appropriate subject matter for psychology is due to whose work? Galton
____ is the preeminent book of Darwin's theory of evolution, which details the evolution of humans from lower forms of life. On the Origin of Species
The most important consequence of functionalism was ____. the development of applied psychology
The first person(s) to engage in large studies of experimental comparative psychology was/were ____. Morgan
Galton proposed that measurement of human traits could be defined and summarized by two numbers, which are ____. the mean and the standard deviation
Which of the following did Galton not endorse in the material from Hereditary Genius? the idea of natural equality
One of the early sources of modern child psychology was an article in 1877 by ____. C. Darwin
Galton argued that what proportion of eminence could be reliably attributed to environmental influences? 0%
Darwin's ideas of evolution were not new. What was new about Darwin's work was his ____. hard data to support such a theory
A consequence of Darwin's work for psychology was ____. the legitimization of nonexperimental descriptive methods
When in England, Darwin displayed a wide variety of physical symptoms. These symptoms were probably ____. psychosomatic-neurotic in origin
A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by ____. Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the ____. fact of variation among members of the species
The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by ____. Darwin's evidence
Who could be described as the driving force of England's scientific establishment? Huxley
Which of the following are influenced by Galton’s work? All of the above.
Today, scientists are sometimes portrayed as offering science as a new religion or as being enemies of religion. This stance could be traced to ____. Huxley
____ was an early evolutionary theorist who argued that acquired characteristics could be inherited. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Galton studied paranoid disorders by ____. imaging that every person or thing he saw was spying on him
Who was the first to show that human mental characteristics followed a normal distribution? Galton
Who was the first to show that biological and social data were normally distributed? Quetelet
What had the greatest impact upon Galton's view on the measurement of intelligence? Locke's theory that all knowledge comes through the senses
The influence of Darwin's work can be seen most directly in ____. comparative psychology
The first systematic study of animal intelligence was by ____. Romanes
Who first highlighted the importance of central tendency? Quetelet
The ____ ask, "What's the mind made of?" whereas the ____ demand, "What does it do?" structuralists; functionalists
Galton's measures of intellectual functioning assumed correlation between intelligence and ____. acuteness of the senses
The essential difference between Wallace's theory of evolution and Darwin's was that the work of the former ____. did not have empirical data to support it
____, a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God. Erasmus Darwin
The hallmark of Woodworth's psychology was his ____. focus on motivation
For Angell, functionalism was to study the adaptive utility of ____. consciousness
John Dewey is credited with initiating the early development of functional psychology in his paper entitled, "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology." What was the major point that Dewey made in this paper? Behavior cannot be properly understood or analyzed into simple stimulus-response units. Behavior must be understood in terms of its result and the adaptive significance of the behavior to the organism.
Who was the earliest to argue that the mind exists in its present form because of past and present efforts to adapt to various environments? Spencer
Who was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association? Hall
What is often considered to be the first psychology laboratory in the United States was established by ____. Hall
Who pioneered an innovative method of information processing? Hollerith
Which of the following statement expresses the James-Lange theory of emotions? Physiological arousal precedes the experience of an emotion.
The "myth of male intellectual superiority" is derived from which of Darwin’s ideas? variability hypothesis
Functionalism was most loudly criticized by the ____. structuralists
Who arranged for Freud and Jung to visit and lecture in America? Hall
James described the manuscript of his book, The Principles of Psychology, as testimony to the fact that ____. a "science of psychology" did not exist
The notion of analysis of consciousness is, in James's view, the ____. psychologists' fallacy
In his presidential address to the American Psychological Association, Angell presented the goals of functional psychology. Which of the following statements represents the main concern of functionalism according to Angell? Functionalism tries to answer why mental processes exist and how they aid survival.
Who stated that the subject matter of psychology was mental activity? Carr
____ was one major area that G.S. Hall was interested in, as evidenced by his research in his doctoral dissertation. Space perception
For James, what was most essential to human evolution? consciousness
The basic tenet of ____ is that the validity of an idea or conception must be tested by its practical consequences pragmatism
Which of the following statements is NOT part of social Darwinism? Each nation should have a social welfare program that supports the poor.
A unique aspect of Woolley's dissertation research was the ____. attribution of sex differences to social and environmental factors
Scott's hypothesis that consumers will do what they are told is called the ____. law of suggestibility
Cattell was a strong proponent of ____. eugenics
The main reason Wundt's and Titchener's systems did not survive in the United States was that they ____. were not pragmatic
If a 10-year-old can perform the same tasks as the average 15-year-old, then the child's ____ is 15 and ____ is 150. mental age; IQ score
In 1900, the American public's response to the new science of psychology was ____. to embrace it
One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the United States is that ____. public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since
Who developed the Draw-A-Man Test, a widely used nonverbal intelligence test for children? Goodenough
Who wrote The Theory and Practice of Advertising, the first book on the psychology of advertising? Scott
The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were ____. World War II and the VA hospital system
The first effective tests of higher mental processes were developed by ____. Binet
According to the intelligence testing of U.S. army recruits, which group scored higher on average? White Americans
The team approach to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders was introduced by ____. Witmer
The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American psychology by ____. Witmer
The first to apply psychology to personnel selection was ____. Scott
Münsterberg was best known ____. through his publications in the popular press on applied psychology
Which of the following methods did Cattell develop? the order-of-merit ranking method
Scott argued that the most effective advertisement consisted of ____. a multiple-media approach
The results of testing by the Yerkes research group ____. had no impact on recruitment and selection or the war effort as a whole
Who revised the Binet intelligence test into what is known as the Stanford-Binet test? Terman
Behavioral and cognitive disorders would be attributed most heavily to ____ by Witmer. environmental factors
Witmer's "clinical psychology" is today known as ____. school psychology
With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of African American ____ demonstrated the strong effects of environment. Bond
Binet based his conclusion about appropriate measure of intelligence based on research conducted with ____. his daughters
At the end of the 19th century, the field of ____ demanded the application of psychological principles to practical problems with rise in private school education. education
The first techniques of psychological therapy to be used in America were developed by ____. Witmer
Binet and Simon's test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its ____. emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes to intelligence
____ used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the United States. Goddard
Witmer's methods of assessment and diagnosis ____. were constructed as he needed them
To whom did Witmer turn for his diagnostic and treatment approaches? himself
Created by: Michelle Jouyo Sullivan Michelle Jouyo Sullivan on 2012-10-13



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