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Unit 3

Blood System

Functions of the Blood System - to transport oxgygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, electrolytes, vitamins, hormones, and wastes throughout the body - To protect the body with circulating white blood cells, antibodies of the immune system, and clotting factors
All cells come from stem cells
An immature RBC Reticulocyte. Becomes mature when enters bloodstream
Structure of Blood System Blood is connective tissue -45% formed element -55% liiquid/plasma
Formed elements are comprised of produced in the bone marrow - erythrocytes - carry oxygen - leukocytes - provide immunity - thrombocytes - key role in hemostasis (clotting)
Blood plasma consists of -90% water -10% components transported throughout the body
Blood fluid that circulates throughout the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, transporting oxygen and nutritive materials to the tissues
Blood : formed elements blood cells
Blood : plasma liquid portion of blood that carries formed elements, clotting factors, minerals, and proteins
Blood : serum liquid portion of blood after removal of clotting factors and blood cells
Bone marrow (blood forming organ) soft tissue within bone, with multiple functions including the production of blood cells
Bone marrow : erythropoietin (EPO) hormone released by kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
Bone marrow : hematopoiesis formation of blood cells and other formed elements
Spleen (blood forming organ) vascular lymphatic organ responsible for filtering blood, destroying old red blood cells, producing red blood cells before birth , and storing blood
Formed element : erythrocyte blood cell that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
Erythrocyte : Hemoglobin (HGB , Hb , Hgb) protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen; gives red blood cells the characteristic color
Iron (Fe) essential trace element necessary for hemoglobin to transport oxygen on red blood cells
Erythrocyte : Macrocyte a large red blood cell
Erythrocyte : Rh factor protein substance present in the red blood cells of most people (85%) that is capable of inducing intense antigenic reactions
Formed element : leukocyte white blood cell , largest blood cell , protects against pathogens, foreign substances, and cell debris
Leukocyte : granulocyte white blood cell with visible granules; the three types of granulocytes are named according to the type of dye each is attracted to
Leukocyte : agranulocyte white blood cell without clearly visible granules
Different types of leukocytes -Granulocytes : neutrophil , eosinophil , basophil -Agranulocytes : lymphocyte , monocyte
Formed element : thrombocyte , platelet (PLT) cell fragments in the blood that stick together, forming a clot
Blood Clotting : Clotting Factors any of the various plasma components involved in the clotting process
Blood Clotting : Coagulation clotting; changing from liquid to a solid state
Blood Clotting : Fibrin elastic fiber protein needed in clotting and produced by fibrinogen
Blood Clotting : Fibrinogen plasma protein that is converted into solid threads called fibrin
chrom/o , chromat/o color
cyt/o cell
erythr/o red
granul/o granules
hem/o , hemat/o blood
immun/o immune, safe
leuk/o white
lymph/o lymph
neutr/o neutral
nucle/o nucleus
path/o disease
phag/o eat, swallow
phleb/o vein
plas/o formation , growth
thromb/o blood clot
auto- self, same
basi- , baso- base
macro- large, long
micro- small
mono- one
pro- before, promoting
poly- many, much
-cyte cell
-emia blood (condition of)
-sis condition, process
-gen origin, production
-lysis destruction , breakdown , separation
-osis abnormal condition
-penia deficiency
-philia attraction for
-poiesis production , formation
-rrhage flowing forth
-y condition of
hematopoietic pertaining to the formation of blood cells
hemolytic pertaining to the rupture or destruction of red blood cells
hemorrhagic pertaining to profuse or excessive bleeding
hemostasis stoppage or arrest of bleeding
anemia condition in which the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or volume of packed cells is lower than normal
clotting disorder condition characterized by an inability of blood to coagulate
hemochromatosis excessive absorption and storage of dietary iron in body tissues causing dysfunction
pancytopenia deficiency in all types of blood cells
polycythemia increase of red blood cells
septicemia spread of microorganisms or toxins through circulating blood
aplastic anemia disorder in which bone marrow does not produce enough red blood cells to transport oxygen due to a lack of iron
pernicious anemia disorder in which the number of red blood cells declines with simultaneous enlargment of individual cells (ex. macrocytes) due to an inability to absorb vitamin B-12
hemorrhagic anemia blood loss anemia- disorder involving lack of red blood cells due to profuse blood loss
thalassemia disorder caused by a genetic defect resulting in low hemoglobin production
sickle cell anemia disorder caused by a genetic defect resulting in abnormal hemoglobin causing sickle-shaped red blood cells, which have difficulty moving through small capillary vessels
Normal platelet count 140,000 - 400,000
Increased bleeding time <100,000
Spontaneous bleeding <10,000
Hemophilia bleeding disorder due to a deficiency of a clotting factor
thrombocytopenia disorder involving low levels of platelets in blood
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) disorder marked by platelet destruction by macrophages resulting in bruising and bleeding from mucous membranes
von Willebrand disease bleeding disorder characterized by a tendency to bleed primarily from the mucous membranes due to a deficiency of a clotting factor
albumin measurement of this protein level; used to diagnose liver or kidney problems, inflammation, malnutrition, or dehydration
bilirubin screen for liver disorders or anemia
blood smear evaluation of the appearance and number of blood cells and the different types of white blood cells
complete blood count (CBC) , hemogram automated count of all blood cells
CBC: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) time measurement of red blood cells settling in a test tube over 1 hour; used to diagnose inflammation and anemia
CBC: hematocrit (HCT, hct) volume of blood occupied by red blood cells; used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
CBC: hemoglobin (HGB, hgb, Hb) test test for the red blood cell protein responsible for binding oxygen; used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
CBC: platelet count (PLT) number of platelets present; used to diagnose bleeding disorders or bone marrow disease
CBC: red blood cell count number of erythrocytes present; used to diagnose various disorders including anemia
CBC: white blood cell count number of leukocytes present; used to diagnose various disorders, including infections and diseases, and for monitoring treatment
cross-matching blood typing test for compatibility between donor and recipient blood
prothrombin time (PT) measurement of time for blood to clot
WBC differential count, differential count evaluation of the total percentage of leukocytes
phlebotomy, venipuncture, venotomy incision into a vein to inject a solution or withdraw blood
blood transfusion (BT) transfer of blood between compatible donor and recipient
apheresis removal and replacement of a patient's own blood or donor blood after specific components have been removed
autologous blood blood donated for future use by same patient; usually presurgical
homologous blood blood donate from same species for use by a compatible recipient
blood component therapy transfusion of specific blood components such as packed red blood cells, plasma, or platelets
plasmapheresis removal and replacement of a patient's own blood after plasma has been removed and replaced with a plasma substitute
bone marrow aspiration (BMA) removal of a small amount of fluid and cells from inside the bone with a needle and syringe
bone marrow transplant (BMT) transfer of bone marrow from one person to another
rheumatology medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic conditions and autoimmune diseases
rheumatologist a physician who specializes in rheumatology
allergology medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of allergy and sensitivity
allergist physician who specializes in allergology
hematology medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs
hematologist physician who specializes in hematology
Created by: Elaine3w