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Anatomy Basics

Unit 2

Three main parts of a cell plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
What does the plasma membrane do cell boundary, secretely premable, regulates movement of substances into and out of cells
Cytoplasm: region between nucleus and plasma membrane, consists of everything but nucleus, cytosol(mostly water) and cystoskeleton
Some organelles: ribosomes-protein synthesis, endoplasmic reticulum (rough-protein synthesis and smooth-steroid synthesis)
golgi apparatus packaging secretion; membrane growth
mitochodria produces energy
lysosomes enzyme container
Nucleus: Controls matabolic activity reproduction (contains dna)
Cytoskeleton: microtubles, microfilament cell movement, support for organelles
Transport may be passive or? active
Passive transport prcoesses no metabolic energy required, substances move along their concentration gradient, driven by diffusion
What is simple diffusion? movement of molecules from an area of high concentration gradient to an area of lower concentration gradient
Osmosis is what? movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
Faciliated diffusion is what? molecules diffuse down their concentration gradient and across a membrane only when attached to a carrier protein
Filtration: small particles are separated from larger ones by passage through a filtering membrane, driven by hydrostatic pressure
Active Transport: carrier molecules move solute through membranes against concentration gradient, requires metabolic energy (ATP)
Endocytosis extracellular substance engulfed by plasma membrane
Phagocytosis endocytosis of solid particles, cell eating
Pinocytosis endocytosis of liquid particles, cell drinking
Exocytosis intracellular material expelled by endocytosis in moving things out of cells in reverse
Cell reproduction the nucleus controls when and how the cell reproduces (by mitosis or meisios)
Mitosis Most body cells reproduce this way, original cell -> two daughter cells in each identical to the parent cell
Meiosis occurs only during production of sperm and ova, original cell -> two daughter cells each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell
What are the four primary body tissues? epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
epithelial tissue does what? covering and lining
Connective tissue does what? binds other tissues together
Muscle tissue does what? shortens to produce tissue movement
nervous tissue does what? conducts impulses
Mitosis in tissue types: occurs most rapidly in epithelial tissue, in adult connective tissue, rate of mitosis varies, in general, adult nervous and muscle tissue DOES NOT undergo mitosis or regenerate
What are the functions of epithelial tissue? protects, sythesizes, secretes, absorbs
Characteristics of epithelial tissue cells tightly packed, one apical (unattached) surface, one basal surface attached to basement membrane, cells reproduce rapidly, not vascularizied
squamous cell height/thickness less than width
cuboidal cell height/thickness roughly equal to width
columnar cell height/thickness greater than width
Ciliated tissues have what on their surfaces? Cilia
Non-ciliated tissues do or do not have cilia? Do not
What are the three number of layers of cells? simple, straitfied, pseudostraitified
How many layers do simple cells have? one single layer
How many layers do pseudostraitified cells have? looks like straitified (more than one) but cells are are attached to basement membrane
straitified cells have how many layers? more than one layer; only the deepest layer attached to the basement membrane
What is simple epithelium? single flattened layers, forms thin structures such as walls of alveoli, capillaries
What is straitified sqaumous epithelium? Multi layers flat on top, deepest later reaches to basement membrane, Forms durable surfaces where friction occur (outer layer of skin, lining of mouth and vagina)
What is simple cuboidal epithelium? single layer of cuboidal cells, forms walls of many glands and ducts
What is simple columnar epithelium? single layer of tall cells, lines stomach, intestines, digestive glands
What is pseudostraitified ciliated columnar? cells taller than wide, all cells lie on basement membrane, but not all cells reach, cilia help move materials surface, forms lining of mucus respiratory passages
What does covering epithelium do? covers external surfaces, e.g epidermis of skin; conjuctiva of the eye
what does covering epithelium do? lines internal cavities, e.g mucous membranes, blood vessel endothelium
What does glandular epithelium do? composes parechyma of glands, secretes compounds
What is a gland? secreting structure composed of one or more cells, classified as exocrine or endocrine
What is an exocrine gland? secrete to external surfaces (e.g sweat gland, lacrimal gland), secrete into a cavity that leads to the outside (e.g salivary, mucous gland;pancreas), many connect via duct
What is an endocrine gland? Secretes hormones(chemical messengers) directly to the blood or body fluid (e.g thyroid gland, overy, pancreas)
What the functions of connective tissue? support, protection, transport, storage, repair
What are characteristics of connective tissues? cells seperated by matrix(extracellular material), matrix consists of: fibers, ground substances, structure varies greatly
What are loose connective tissues? more ground substances than cells or fibers
what two types of loose connective tissue are there? Areolar, adipose
What is Areolar tissues? loosely woven fibers, semifluid matrix, connect tissues and organs
What is Adipose tissue? fat-like cells (adipocytes), little extracellular material, fat reservoir, cushions/protects organs; insulates
What is Dense fibrous tissue? densely packed fibers, may be regular(tendons, ligaments) or, irregular(dermis, capsules of many organs)
What do dense regular tissues do? tendons: attach muscle to bones ligaments: attach bone to bone at joints
What is cartilage? cells (chondrocytes) surrounded by variable matrix
What are types of cartilage? hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic
Where is hyaline cartilage found? found in joints
Where is fibrocartilage found? found in spinal discs
where is elastic cartilage found? found in ears and nose
What is bone? hard matrix (contains calcium, other minerals), functions: support, protection, storage, blood cell production
What is blood? liquid matrix, functions: transportation (gases, nutrients hormones, waste)
What are muscle tissue characteristics? contracile tissue shortens, brings about movement,
What are three types of muscle tissue? three types: skeletal(straited), smooth, cardiac
What is skeletal muscle? long striated, multinucleated cells attached to bones, moves body parts, voluntary control, strong but fatigues quickly, tentanizes-> controls without relaxing
What is cardiac muscle? branched, striated uninucleated, cells interconnected by intercalated discs, found only heart, self stimulating, involuntary control, slower than skeletal muscle, does not fatigue or tenanize
What is smooth muscle? spindle-shaped cells, forms walls of hollow organs: blood vessels, iris of the eyes, brings about peristalsis,vasoconstriction, involuntary control, contractions usually SLOWEST
What is nervous tissue? excitable tissue, found only in nervous system, includes neurons (nerve cells) and gila (supporting cells) communication, control
What are membranes? pliable layer of epithelial and/or connective tissue, mucous membrane (mucosa), serous membrane (serosa), cutaneous membrane (skin)
What do mucuous membranes do? line open cavities i.e mouth and respiratory tract
What other things do mucous membranes do? secrete mucus, functions: absportion, secretion, protection
What do serous membranes do? secrete serous fluid(lubricant), made of two layers, outer parietal layer lines closed cavities, inner visceral layer covers outer surfaces of some organs i.e heart
Three types of serous membranes are: pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
What does pericardium do? visceral pericardium forms outer surface of the heart, parietal pericardium forms sac around the heart
What does peritoneum do? visceral peritoneum covers many abdominal organs (can have adipose tissue), parietal peritoneum lines abdominal cavity
Peritoneal extensions: two fused layers of serous membrane, extended from posterior abdominal wall to the liver, stomach, spleen, most of small intestines, and transverse colon, supports organs, nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
Lesser omentum: extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of stomach and proximal duodenum, supports stomach
What is greater omentum? apron-like fold of peritoneum, hangs from greater curvatures of stomach, protects and insulates abdominal organs
Mesentery: extends from posterior abdominal walls to small intestines, supports intestines
Functions of integumentary system protects, temparture regulation, absorption, excretion, synthesis, sensory reception, appearence
What are the two main layers of the skin? epidermis (epithelial tissue) dermis (connective tissue) Blood supply
What is the hypodermis? subcutaneous layer deep to dermis, areolar and adipose tissue and blood vessels *NOT PART OF SKIN*
What is stratum germinativum cuboidal epithelium, most vital layer of epidermis because it's close to a blood supply,. mitosis occurs here, pushes more superfical layers towards the surface
What is stratum corneum(horny layer) straitified squamous epithelium, kertainizied dead cells, waters the skin, continually being shed, protects underlying tissues
What are melanocytes? stimulated by uv light, hormones, inject melanin protein into surrounding epidermal cells-> darkening the skin
What is skin colour? determined by gentics, number of melanocytes, colour of melanin produced, ability to break down
What is skin colour affected by? exposure to uv light, blood flow to skin, blood oxygen saturation, presence of abnormal pigments e.g bilirubin(jaundice)
What are the functions of the dermis? connective tissue, tough, elastic, supports epidermis, houses: glands, hair root, sensory receptor, blood vessels
What do sweat glands do? secrete sweat, temperature regulation
what do subaceous glands do? extension of hair follicles,secrete sebum that: keeps hair supple, bactericidal effect
What does the hair bulb do? secretes protein, sheds cells
what does the hair follicle do? tubular epithelium
what does the hair shaft do? distributed over most skin surfaces, protein
what does the arrector pili muscle do? pulls hair upright
sensory receptors: sense: pain, touch, temperature, pressure, vibration
What do arteries do? supply nutrients, Oxygen2 to skin via the blood
what do veins do? carry waste products from the skin via the blood
Where are nails? on fingers and toes
What functions do nails have? protection, aid in picking up, grasping objects
Created by: 500090280