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DNA 3 Mitochondrial

Lecture 4.

Comparison of Human DNA 3.2 billion bp, Mito=16568 2 per cell and Mito-500to1000 DNA-99.75%
What are Mitochondrial Functions? Power house of cell. Provides all chemical energy in form of ATP. Other functions include Apoptosis, heat production, storage of calcium, elongation of fatty acids, steroid synthesis.
What are the characteristics of mtDNA? Has:Cirular Genome, about 16569 BP, codes for 37 genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 RNAs, 13 proteins. 4-5 copies per Mitochondria, thousands per cell. mtDNA makes up less than 1% of DNA. Some people have a 9 BP deletion.
Mitochondria has two strands describe them. The Heavy Strand (H) which contains greater amounts of guanine and is purine rich. 28 gene products encoded. The Light Strand (L) which contains more C and T nucleotides. Is pyrimidine rich. 9 (8tRNAs and 1 protein from L)
What is the reference sequence? Reference sequence is also known as the Anderson sequence Sequenced in 1981. Also called Cambridge reference sequence. The revised reference sequence is accepted standard (is 16568 BP)
Compare CRS to rCRA. No difference in the control region. Original CRS contained a CC at 3106-3197 (only 1 C) (1 BP shorter)
How is mtDNA inherited? Only through the female line from your mother.
How do we measure mtDNA variance? Restriction Fragment Length Polymophism: Used in old method of measuring mtDNA variation. New method consists of using PCR and sequence analysis in control region. MT control region only varies 1-2% in people.
What are some problems or what can go wrong with mtDNA? Polymeric C Stretches, Hetroplasmy, Sample Mixtures, Nuclear pseudogenes, Common types of mtDNA.
Go over Nuculear Pseudogenes, C stretch, Same
Future of mtDNA use? Whole mitochondria genome sequencing. Proposed by Deborah Nickerson group in 1998. Used 24 pairs to span mt Genome. Method used by Ingman in 2000 sequence using 53 mt Genomes.
What are the mtDNA databases we have? EMPOP=European DNA Profiling group Mitochondrial DNA Populace Databases Project.
Created by: Perrin Serroul Perrin Serroul