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Unit V B

Unit V B : World War One

QuestionAnswer
Pancho Villa Led guerrillas opposed to the new Mexican government on raids into the United States
John J. Pershing U.S. General sent into Mexico to try to capture Pancho Villa but failed to do so
Militarism Build up of armed forces to intimidate other nations
Germany sought to challenge________ dominance of the seas and so they engaged in a race to build larger and more battleships. This increased tensions between the two nations. British
Nationalism Extreme pride in one’s nation
Germany saw itself as lacking in colonies as it was a latecomer to imperialism. It wanted a _____ according to its leader Kaiser Wilhelm II. "place in the sun”,
Alliance System Pledges among groups of nations to defend each other if any member was attacked
Triple Alliance ( Central Powers ) Germany, Austria-­‐Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Italy ( until 1915 )
Triple Entente ( Allies ) France, Russia, Britain, Italy ( after 1915 )
Balkan Nationalism Movement by various Slavic peoples of the Balkans who wanted independence from the Austrian-­‐Hungarian Empire. When Austria-­‐Hungary annexed Bosnia, this upset independent Serbia which also wanted Bosnia.
Gavrilo Princip Serbian nationalist who in Aug., 1914 assassinated Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand Archduke and the heir to the throne of Austria-­‐Hungary.
What was the short term cause of WW1? the assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Austria-­‐Hungary blamed______ for the assassination and wanted to their Serb nationalism Serbia
Serbia had the support of_____ while Austria-­‐Hungary had the support of______ Russia, Germany
What happened after Austria-­‐Hungary declared war on Serbia? Russia mobilized its troops. Germany then declared war on Russia.
Schlieffen Plan Involved Germany attacking Russia first then turning to defeat France.
Germany invaded France through_____. neutral Belgium
This brought______ into the war as they had pledged to defend Belgium. The German offensive was stopped and the war devolved into a long struggle Britain
U.S. Response to Outbreak of War = Neutrality but Public Opinion Favored the Allies
Propaganda one sided information by Britain portrayed Germany as bad
Britain and France were_____. Central Powers were_____ democracies, monarchies
3 reasons US favored allies Greater cultural heritage in common, Britain and France were democracies. Central Powers were monarchies, More trading with Allied countries
U-­‐boats German submarines. Used to disrupt trade with Britain
Lusitania Passenger liner sunk by U-­‐boats in May of 1915, killing 128 Americans onboard
Sussex Pledge Germany said they would stop unrestricted submarine warfare after Pres. Wilson protested the March 1916 sinking of another passenger liner
______won reelection in 1916 with the pledge “He kept us out of war”. President Wilson
Zimmerman Telegram Message intercepted in January 1917. Germany proposed that Mexico ally with Germany in case the U.S. entered the war. Mexico would recover lost lands in exchange for their aid. This outraged Americans.
In_______ Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sank six more U.S. merchant ships. On______, Pres, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war which passed by a wide margin two days later. February of 1917, April 2, 1917
Conscription ( the draft ) was authorized by Congress for the first time since the Civil War
Selective Service System created to carry this out through local draft boards
African-­‐Americans served in the military in segregated units but their experiences in France of a society without segregation inspired many to pursue civil rights in the U.S. following the war
Women served as____, doing non-­‐combat tasks such as clerical duties and nursing auxiliaries
War Industries Board ( W.I.B.) Coordinated allocation of resources and production of equipment for the war
Committee on Public Information -­‐ ( C.P.I. ) issued propaganda to gain support for the war
George Creel Head of the C.P.I.
Food Administration Responsible for producing enough food for the war effort and getting Americans to conserve food
Herbert Hoover Head of the Food Administration
Victory Gardens Public was encouraged to grow their own food to conserve for the war
Fuel Administration Managed fuel supplies and encouraged conservation by citizens
Daylight Savings Time was instituted to save energy
War Bonds / Liberty Bonds How the government raised most of the money for the war
National War Labor Board ( N.W.L.B.) Mediated between business and labor to avoid strikes. Labor gained better wages, an 8 hour work day, and the right to organize during the war
“Great Migration”: African-­‐Americans moving to northern cities for wartime industrial jobs
Women took over many jobs left behind by the men who went to war. After the war women lost these nontraditional jobs to the returning soldiers. However, women’s contributions to the war effort helped them to gain suffrage after the war with the passage of the 19th amendment
The war led to anti-­‐German feelings, intolerance, and persecution of German Americans
Espionage Act & Sedition Amendment Passed to deal with the threat of spies and antiwar speech that might undermine the war effort
Eugene V. Debs Labor leader turned socialist who was arrested for speaking out against the war.
Industrial Workers of the World ( I.W.W.) aka. “Wobblies” Radical socialist union that opposed the war. They thought exploited workers fought on behalf of industrialist capitalists
Schenck vs. US Supreme Court decision that free speech could be limited during war if it posed a “clear and present danger” to the nation. Upheld the jailing of war protestors.
How did WWI demonstrate a change in warfare. Trenches, barbed wire, artillery, and machine guns led to extremely high casualty rates as soldiers charged over “no man’s land” between entrenched armies.
The tank and chemical weapons such as _______were introduced as were early use of airplanes. chlorine and mustard gas
Doughboys" nickname for U.S. soldiers in WWI
John J. Pershing Commander of the American Expeditionary Force ( A.E.F. ). He kept Americans under Amer. leadership and not be used as replacements for British and French units.
Czar Nicholas II of Russia was deposed (overthrown ) in a revolution in 1917
Vladimir Lenin Led the communist Bolsheviks that took over Russia and made peace with Germany
Germany turned its total attention to the western front in 1918 for a final offensive. The Allies were bolstered by American reinforcements and the German offensive was repelled at Chateau-­‐Thierry and Belleau Wood
During the Allied counteroffensive in the summer of 1918, American troops distinguished themselves in the Meuse-­‐Argonne offensive at St. Mihiel
Alvin York Received the Congressional Medal of Honor for single handedly killing 20 Germans and capturing 132 others
Germany agreed to an_______ ( agreement to cease fighting ) on November 11, 1918. This day is now celebrated as________ armistice, Veterans Day
14 Points (what is it) President Wilson’s proposals to create a lasting peace following the war
14 points (parts of it) Self-­‐determination -­‐ nation’s borders based on ethnic identity ( 570 ) Open diplomacy -­‐ no secret treaties / alliances Free trade Freedom of the seas Reduce armies / navies League of Nations -­‐ world organization
Wilson hoped for ____ but victorious France and Britain wanted to punish the Central Powers a lenient peace
Treaty of Versailles Treaty that ended the war
Reparations Losers had to pay damages to the winners Failed to adopt Wilson’s proposals except for the League of Nations
Irreconcilables” Republicans entirely opposed to the treaty. They believed U.S. involvement in the League would violate U.S. neutrality. ( 573 ) Led by Henry Cabot Lodge
“Reservationists” Republicans who would approve the treaty if it was stated that the League did not require the U.S. to go to war without approval of Congress. Included Robert La Follette
Pres. Wilson refused to compromise. The Republicans voted down the treaty as it was written and Wilson vetoed a compromise version, so the U.S. did not sign the treaty or join the League of Nations
The transition from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy resulted in racial tensions as returning white soldiers competed for jobs with African-­‐Americans that had moved to northern cities. Race riots occurred
Inflation following the war led workers to demand higher wages and resulted in many strikes. This caused fear in the public of the possibility of a revolution as had occurred in Russian in 1919.
“Red Scare” Fear that communists were conspiring to take power in the U.S.
Mitchell Palmer Attorney General that organized raids on radical organizations and people were jailed without regard to their civil rights.
Created by: mghamiter on 2012-10-08



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