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FBSF chapter 15

The Lymphatic & Immune System--Chapter 15

The lymphatic system is a circulatory system
The lymphatic system transports fluid called lymph
The fluid that escapes(seeps) from capillaries into tissue spaces is called interstitial (between cells) fluid
The result of insufficient draining of interstitial fluid is edema(swelling)
The lymphatic system consists of: 1.Lymph 2.Lymph vessels 3.Lymph nodes 4.Tonsils 5.Spleen 6.Thymus gland 7.Peyer's patches 8.Red bone marrow
Lymph nodes are the shape of beans
Lymph nodes are found along the length of the lymphatic system(everywhere)
The three areas of lymph node concentrations are 1.Cervical(neck) 2.Axillary(armpits) 3.Liguinal or iliac(groin)
The primary function of the lymphatic system are 1.Drain fluid from tissue spaces that excapes(oozes) from capillaries(drainage system for your capillaries) 2.Transport fats from the digestive system to the blood 3.Produce lymphocytes(Lymph cells) 4.Develope immunities
The circulation of lymph through the lymph vessels is maintained by normal skeletal muscle contractions
Swelling of the lymph nodes is called lymphadenopathy
The three groups of tonsils are the 1.Palatine tonsils 2.Pharyngeal tonsils(adnoids) 3.Lingual tonsils(behind tongue)
The pharyngeal tonsils are AKA adenoids
The spleen is oval in shape
The spleen is the single largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body
The pharyngeal tonsils(adenoids) are located close to the internal orifice of the nasal cavity(nasopharynx (throat)
The lingual tonsils are located on the posterior surface of the tongue at its base
The spleen is located in the superior left corner of the abdominal cavity(by stomach)
The functions of the spleen include *Filters the blood to phagocytize(eat it)bacteria, worn out platelets(thrombocytes)& erythrocytes(RBCs-bilirubin) *Releases hemoglobin(Hgb) from the worn out erythrocytes(RBCs) *Acts as a reservoir for blood *Produces lymphocytes
The Peyer's patches are AKA aggregated lymphatic follicles
The Peyer's patches resemble tonsils
The thymus is a bilobed(2) mass of lymphatic tissue located in the mediastinum (between lungs)
The Peyer's patches are found in the walls of the small intestines(duodenum, jejunum, & ileum)
The Peyer's patches are responsible for preventing bacteria from infecting & penetrating the walls of the small intestine
The function of the thymus is the maturation of T lumphocytes(T cells)
The thymus reaches maximum size during puberty & decrease in size as we age
Red bone marrow is found in the 1.Sternum 2.Vertebrae(spinal column) 3.Ribs 4.Ilia(hands of hips) 5.The proximal & distal portions of each humerus (upper are) & femur (upper leg).
Red bone marrow is the site of stem cells that are ever capable of dividing & producing blood cells (hematopoiesis--blood creation)
An antigen is any foreign protein that triggers an immune response such as pathogentic, viruses, bacteria & fungi
Antibodies are immune proteins that bind to antigens and tag the antigens for destruction by the immune system
Some of these cells become leukocytes such as 1-Monocytes(phagocytic/eat it) 2-Neutrophils (phagocytic--eat it) 3-Eosinophils (toxins, helminths/worm) 4-Lymphocytes(produce antibodies) 5-Basophils(relase histamine & heparin/more fluid to an area) MONKEYS NEVER EAT LITTLE BANANAS
Antibodies are specialized
Specialized means that only a specific antigen (virus, bacteria fungus,etc.) will be attached;
The positions of the three groups of tonsils form a protective ring against harmful microorganisms that might enter the nose or oral cavity
The palatine tonsils are located in the tonsillar fossa(indentation/pocket) between the pharyngopalatine & glossopalatine arches on either side of the posterior os of the oral cavity.
Concentrations of lymph vessels are called lymph nodes or lymph glands
Antibody production is the only (way)mechanism that can defeat a viral infection
Other B lymphocytes (B cells/memory cells) become dormant and are responsible for a more potent and rapid antibody response during subsequent exposures to the same antigen
Lymphocytes are categorized as 1.B lymphocytes(B cells) mature in the bone marrow 2.T lymphocytes(T cells) mature in the thymus
The B lymphocytes(B cells) mature in the bone marrow
Some B lymphocytes (B cells) produce antibodies
These dormant B lymphocytes(B cells) are called memory cells
Memory cells are responsible for a lasting immunity
Types of antibodies include 1. IgG 2. IgA 3. IgM 4. IgE 5. IgD
Ig stands for ImmunoGlobulin (immune protein - are antibodies)
Administration of an attenuated or inactived antigen is called a 1. Vaccination 2. Inoculation 3. Immunization
Booster immunizations are designed to stimulate the production of more memory B cells
The B lymphocytes (B cells) will develop antibodies when 1. a person contracts a pathological antigen(gets sick) 2.a person is exposed to an attenuated(crippled) or inactivated(dead) pathological antigen
Attenuated means that the antigen has been crippled (can not reproduce)
Inactivated means that the antigen is dead
An attenuated or inactivated antigen does not cause disease but will trigger the B lymphocytes (B cells) to produce antibodies
Immunizations MMR-Measles(rubeola)Mumps(parotitis)Rubella(german measles)*OPV(IPV)Oral(inactivated)Polio Vaccine*DPT-Diphtheria,Pertussis(whooping cough)&Tetanus*VZV-VericellaZoster Virus*HAV-Hepatitis A Virus(ingested/eat)*HBV-Hepatitis B Virus*MCV-MenignoCoccal Virus
Immunizations con't Hib-Haemophilus Influenzae b vaccine*PPV-pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine*HPV-Human Papilloma Virus*Herpes zoster AKA shingles*RV-RotaVirus*Smallpox
Common trade names for the Measles, Mumps & Rubella(MMR) vaccine include Priorix, Tresivac & Trimovax
Common trade names for the DPT / Diphtheria, Pertussis(whooping cough) & Tetanus vaccine include DTaP - ages 1-7(Daptacel) Tdap - booster(Adacel, Boostrix)
VZV Varicella Zoster Virus causes chickenpox
A common trade name for the Varicella Zoster Vaccine(VZV) is Varivax
Common trade names for the hepatitis A vaccine include Havrix & Vaqta
Common trade names for the hepatitis B vaccine include Hepatovax, Energix B, and Recombivax HB
The MeningoCoccal Virus (MCV) prevents bacterial meningitis
Common trade names for the MeningoCoccal Vaccine(MCV) include Menomune & Menactra MCV4 is recommended for ages 2-55 MPSV4 is recommended for ages over 55
The Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine(PPV) prevents pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis
Common trade names for the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPV) include Prevnar, Pneumovax 23 & Pnu-Immune 23
The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can cause genital warts
A common trade name for the Human Pappilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine is Gardasil
A common trade name for the herpes zoster vaccine is Zostavax
The RotaVirus(RV) causes profound diarrhea in infants and children
A common trade name for the RotaVirus(RV) vaccine is RotaTeq
The last case of smallpox was in 1977...the smallpox vaccine is not routinely administered
A blood test used to determine the amount of a specific antibody present is called an antibody titer (are you immune to something)
CD4 T lymphocytes (helper cells) increase the activity of killer cells, stimulate B lymphocytes (B cells-produce antibodies to fight off antigens) and activate monocytes
A CD4 T lymphocyte count less than 200 indicates the transition from the HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection to AIDS (Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome)
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed