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Striated msucle cont

function of muscle and list 3 types of muscle -to generate force or movemnet in response to a physiologicla stiumulus example, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle
major function of skeletal muscle -control voluntary movement of bone underlie locomotion and work produciton -control breathing cycle of lung (diaphragm) -pump assisting in delivery venous blood
major function of cardiac msucle -specific to heard -biomechanical pump which is driving force to delivery blood to lung and tissue
major function of smooth muscle -mechanical control of organ system (digestive, urinary & reproductive tract, blood vessels of circulatory system, airway passage of respiratory system
what is the common initiation trigger to all 3 types of muscle movement - chemical neurotransmitter, paracrine factor, or by direct electrical excitation -a rise in free cytosolic calcium concentration
structure of skeletal muscle myofilament -> sarcromer -> myofibril -> myofiber -> fascicle -> muscle
Sarcolemma the plasma membrane underneath endomysium of the muscle cell
Endomysium external sheath surround single muscle fibers
Perimysium an external sheath around fascicle
Epimysium an external sheath extedning from tendon which surround the whole muscle
Neuromuscular Junction the synapse formed when motor nerve axon contact muscle fiber near the middle of fiber
Motor end plate specialized region of sarcolemma in cloest contact iwht pregynatic nerve terminal
In physiological excitation of skeletal muscle, what chemical binding trigger action potential Ach (acetylcholine)
what does Ach binding to nicotinic receptor trigger? graded depolarizing end-plate potential or actional potential if the membrane potential is over firing threshold
how many motor neuron does one single muscle cell respond to? 1
Motor unti group of muscle fiber innervate by all of the collateral branches of a single motor neuron
Innervation Ratio it is determined by the number of muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron. Therefore wide range of forces and a graded range of shortening can be gernerated
Example o small innervation ratio movemnet High-precision movement of extraocular muscle, control positioning movement of eyes 3 muscles fibers per neuron
Example of large innervation ratio movement postural control by soleus muscle 200 muscles fibers per neuron
Why striated muscle has striated appearance? -they have highly organized sacromere within thick and thin filament the alternating light and dark band contribute to the striated appearance
A band -dark region -region of myosin (thick) filament antisotropic to polarized light
I band -region where thin (actin) filament is not overlapped with think filament -istropic to polarized light
Z disk -dark line in the middle of I band -tether thin filament with single myfibril together and teher each myofibril to its neighbor and align sarcomere -the diameter of the myofibril
Sarcomere -repeat unit between one Z disc to another
how many thin filament surround thick filament in a cross section view when thick and thin filament overlap 6 actin thin filament srround each thick filament (myosin) -hexagonal array
During contraction, which band change length and which one remain constant I band shorten and A band remain unchanged
structure of thin filament -Actin 13 individual actin monomer ==> single strand of Factin filament x 2 ==> double-strand alpha helical polyer
two regulatory actin-protein binding protein associate with F actin tropomyosin & troponin
How many actin monomer does 1 tropomyosin reacting with Seven
function of tropomyosin regulating the binding of myosin head group to actin
How alpha helix dose tropomyosin has 2 identical alpha-helics that coil sround each other
List each component of Troponin 1) Troponin T : bind to Tropomyosin 2) Troponin C : bind calcium ion, closely related to calmodulin (another calcium binding protein) 3) Troponin I: bind actin which inhibit contraction
Troponin Complex troponin heterotrimer subunit: (T, I, C) which interact directly with actin filament
Structure of Myosin Hexamer with 2 heavy chain, 2 alkali light chain and 2 regulatory light chain
component of heavy chain of myosin 1) rod: alpha helics that wrap around each other, the tail of myosin 2) hinge: molecules flare open to form 2 globular head 3) Head: binding site for actin, binding site for ATP hydrolysis, 1 essential and regulatory light china
Function of alkali light chain of myosin essential for myosin stabilization
function of regulatory light chain of myosin regulate ATPase activity of myosin through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in calcium dependent and independent kinase
Importance of head region of heavy chain region where cross-bridges between the thick and thin filament of the sarcomere
Titin -large protein run alongside with thick filament -tethered from M line to each neighboring Z disk -involve in elastic behavior of muscle -maintaining the resting length of muscle during relaxation
Nebulin -large protein that wrap around the actin filament -run from Z disk
M line the attachment of myosin molecules within the thick filament
effect of concentration of intracellular calcium ion on cross-bridge cycling increase Ca2+, Allow cross-bridge cycling to continue Decrease Ca2+,stop the cross-bridge cycling and muscle relax
2 calcium binding site on Troponin C 1) N loob (low affinity calcium binding site) bind and release calcium when it rise or fall in sacroplasm, regulate binding of actin to myosin 2) C lobe (high affinity site), occupied by calcium or magnesium in a physiological condition
Effect of binding Ca2+ to the low affinity site of troponin confirmation change in troponin complex 1) Troponin I, move away from actin/tromyosin filament and permitting tromyosin molecule to move 2)Toponin T, push tropomyosin away from actin filament into the groove and allow myosin to bind to actin
List the steps in Cross-bridge cycle 1) ATP Binding (release from rigid state) 2) ATP Hydrolysis (myosin move to new position) 3) Cross-bridge formation (cross-bridge state) 4) P dissociate from myosin (power stroke) 5) ADP dissociate from myosin (rigid state of myocin-actin complex)
Rigor mortis -extreme muscle rigidity, develop after death from lack of ATP -myosin head remind 45 degree respect o actin and myosin filament
What must be present for myosin to be release from actin ATP
At which step does skeletal and cardiac muscle control contraction cycle? cross-bridge formation step skeletal and cardiac muscle will prevent cross-bridge formation until tropomyosin move out actin in response to increase calcium concentration
how to classify different muscle types 1)its histological appearance 2) how muscle is controlled 3) its anatomical position
how different muscle type innverated? skeletal muscle: electrical nerve activation cardiac muscle: electrical signal generate inside the heart itself
straited muscle vs smooth muscle in muscle movement 1) straited muscle move by sliding actin and myosin filament through process of cross-bridge formation, power storke and regulated by calcium and ATP 2) smooth muscle has similar process except Myosin light chain kinase is needed to phosphylate myosin
list 3 properties of muscle tissue contractile, excitable, extensible
what is the function of satellite cell it has limited ability for skeletal muscle repair and growth. however it has limited turnover rate
Where do we find satellite cell? found around adult muscle fibers
what does satellite cell differentiate into? myocytes
2 clinical correlation with satellite cell 1) Duchenne muscular dystophy (depletion of satellite cell and lack of dystrophy) 2) satellite cell activity decrease with age
sacro flesh
Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cell
Sarcolemma plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cell
Sarcoplasmic reticulum the endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cell
What is specific function of sarcoplasmic reticulum? it is highly specialized for calcium storage
Sarcomere structural and functional unit of skeletal muscle
what is the myofiber made up of? it is individual muscle cell made up of bundles of protein called myofibril
What is the main component of myofibril? actin + myosin
what filament attach to Z disc? actin filament
What filament attach to M line Myosin filament
which band of sacromere shorten during contraction? I band and H zone A band remain the same length
where do we find dystrophin on the sarcomere? It is on Z disc and attach actin to the cell
Golgi tendon organ - Specialized proprioceptive receptor (sense position within 3D space) - increase afferent output when muscle is contract
Muscle spindle -specialized stretch receptor within Muscle -provide information on the degree of muscle stretching -increase afferent output in response to stretch
what happen to golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle when muscle is contracted? the Golgi tendon will increase its afferent out frequency Muscle spindle will remain the same or decrease as it mainly response to stretching
what happen to golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle when muscle is stretched? the muscle spindle will increase its afferent output while golgi tendon organ will not
what type of junction we found in intercalated disc of cardiac muscle 1) demosome, prevent cell from fall apart 2) gap junction: transmission of AP
what is the shape of smooth muscle during relaxation? cigar shaped nucleus
what is the shape of smooth muscle during contraction? spiral shaped nucleus
What type contraction does smooth muscle produce? Involuntary , weak and slow contraction
which two muscle tissue are uninucleate? Cardiac and smooth muscle
how does smooth muscle arrange to contribute to its peristalsis movement? ALternate contraction between inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer
what happen if we contract the inner circular layer? the diameter of cell decrease and length of cell increase
What happen if we contract the outer circular layer? the diameter of cell increase and length of cell decrease
What is difference between smooth and striated muscle contraction? Striated muscle contact by shortening the length. Smooth muscle around tubular organ, contract and move in wave (peristalsis) through alternation contraction of inner circular and outer longitudinal layer.
Give an example of area where smooth muscle is undergo constant regeneration? Uterine wall (highly active cell regenerate during menstrual cycle) -can form benign tumor (fibroid) due to high replication rate
What is presence to control the peristalsis movement of smooth muscle Nerve tissue between 2 layers
Created by: powerbaby