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Eastern Geography

Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
Taiga Northern coniferous forest; Russia and Canada
Convection Drives continental drift by convection in magma; it's the transfer of heat by the circulation of heated parts of a liquid or gas; magma that is hot and less dense rises, it cools and becomes more dense creating a circular movement of magma
Convection Drives continental drift by convection in magma; it's the transfer of heat by the circulation of heated parts of a liquid or gas; magma that is hot and less dense rises, it cools and becomes more dense creating a circular movement of magma
Permafrost ground is always frozen beneath surface year round is in Tundra; trees can't grow there b/c frozen ground prevents roots from spreading so only small plants, lichen, and wildflowers can grow
Permafrost ground is always frozen beneath surface year round is in Tundra; trees can't grow there b/c frozen ground prevents roots from spreading so only small plants, lichen, and wildflowers can grow
Frontal Precipitation warm and cool air masses meet, warm air is forced upward, water vapor condenses and falls; it's what causes rainfall in the area where we live
Frontal Precipitation warm and cool air masses meet, warm air is forced upward, water vapor condenses and falls; it's what causes rainfall in the area where we live
Orographic Precipitation warm, moist air is forced to rise over mountains; Leeward side of mountain is in rain shadow; therefore, all of the moisture falls on one side of the mountain causing lots of vegetation to grow while the other can be a desert
Coriolis Effect a spinning body deflects motion on its surface; causes wind patterns to bend; (think of throwing a ball across a moving merry-go-round
Weathering BREAKING DOWN of materials at earth's surface; water and wind
Erosion MOVEMENT of particles of earth's surface (usually downhill); water and wind
Hydrologic Cycle It begins with evaporation from mainly oceans; then moist air rises, cools, and condenses to form clouds; then returns to surface as precipitation; then it eventually makes its way to rivers and eventually oceans to evaporate again or becomes ground water
Surface Rebound Occurs when mountains made of lighter or less dense material than other regions goes deep into the crust; when mountains are worn away, the lighter material rebounds causing mountains to rise again
Van Allen Belt magnetic field created by earth's core spinning; functions as an electromagnet deflecting harmful solar radiation to the pole; also causes Aurora Borealis (northern lights)
Core Its made of iron and nickel, 2100 mi radius; inner is solid and outer is liquid, if part of the core wasn't liquid then the Van Allen Belt wouldn't exist and there would be nothing to protect us from solar radiation
Subduction occurs when one plate slides beneath another; the more dense plate goes beneath the other so oceanic plates can go beneath continental plates or denser ocean plates can go beneath less dense oceanic plates; causes mountains and volcanoes; ex. Andes Mts.
Converging occurs when two plates crash together; only occurs in continental plates; forms mountains; ex. Himalayas
Faulting occurs when two plates slide by each other, an example of this is California; or a weak point within a plate, an example of this is the New Madrid fault; causes earthquakes
Epicenter point on surface above focus of an earthquake; strongest tremors will be felt here from an earthquake
Subduction occurs when one plate slides beneath another; the more dense plate goes beneath the other so oceanic plates can go beneath continental plates or denser ocean plates can go beneath less dense oceanic plates; causes mountains and volcanoes; ex. Andes Mts.
Richter Scale Numerical rating of an earthquake's severity; scale of 2-12; a 3/4 will be able to be felt but only slightly; a 5 will cause some mild damage; and a 6+ causes lots of damage
Summer Solstice point in Earth's orbit when the Northern Hemisphere has maximum tilt toward to sun
Converging occurs when two plates crash together; only occurs in continental plates; forms mountains; ex. Himalayas
Winter Solstice Point where Northern Hemisphere tilts away from the sun
Epicenter point on surface above focus of an earthquake; strongest tremors will be felt here from an earthquake
Equinox point in orbit where sun falls equally on Northern and Southern hemispheres; sun is shining directly over the equator
Richter Scale Numerical rating of an earthquake's severity; scale of 2-12; a 3/4 will be able to be felt but only slightly; a 5 will cause some mild damage; and a 6+ causes lots of damage
Tropic of Cancer point on earth where sun appears directly overhead on summer solstice; 23.5 degrees N
Summer Solstice point in Earth's orbit when the Northern Hemisphere has maximum tilt toward to sun
Winter Solstice Point where Northern Hemisphere tilts away from the sun
Equinox point in orbit where sun falls equally on Northern and Southern hemispheres; sun is shining directly over the equator
Tropic of Cancer point on earth where sun appears directly overhead on summer solstice; 23.5 degrees N
Tropic of Capricorn sun directly overhead on winter solstice; 23.5 degrees S
Arctic and Antarctic Circle 66.5 degrees N and S; point at which sun is in sky 24 hrs during the summer solstice and doesn't come up at all during the winter solstice
Soil loose mixture of parent material, organic matter, air, and water that supports plant growth; several factors of soil can be time, relief(steepness), and climate
What determines where deserts are located? 30 degrees N or S, rain shadows, and cool water currents
What's the difference between climate and weather? Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time, while climate is the average of weather conditions over a long period of time especially temperature and precipitation.
Describe the development of rivers. When they are young, they have a rapid course, rocky bed, and are straight. Later, their course slows down, their rocky bed becomes muddy, and the straight paths turn into meanders which can later create oxbow lakes.
Explain why Europe has dominated the rest of the world. B/c the plethora of mountains and peninsulas caused little unity, then more competition, which created an advancement of more technology and weapons; The more plants and animals to domesticate caused more food, big armies/more diseases to wipe out enemies
How do plants adapt to the desert? Store water after it rains so it lasts longer like cacti, deep and wide reaching roots to take advantage of rainy season, and ephemerals who have very short life cycles to take advantage of the rainy season
Created by: 12tsherman