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Neurobiology Exam 2

Cellular Neurobiology Exam 2

Myotonia mutation to inactivation loop of Na+ or Cl- channels, causing slow inactivation where APs continue to fire after the stimulus is removed
Periodic Paralysis mutation to inactivation loop of Na+ channel or S4 on Ca2+, causing incomplete inactivation with a continued Na+ current after stimulus is removed
Generalized Epilepsy many forms occur due to a mutation in Na+ channels, but can occur to a mutation in a wide variety of channels, all resulting in overexcitation
Loss of Pain mutation to Nav 1.7 channel on pain fiber causing ineffective channels due to loss of ion pore
Familial Hemiplagic Migrane Mutation in Ca2+ v channels causing headaches with aura in vision on one side
Congenital Stationary Night Blindness mutation to all the Ca2+ channels on rod cells resulting in no depolarization of rod cells
Episodic Ataxia Type 2 mutation to Ca v 2.1 found in cerebellum resulting in loss of control of neurotransmitter release
Episodic Ataxia Type 1 mutation in Kv 1.1 resulting in loss of control of neurotransmitter release
Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder mutation to Nav 1.7 on pain fibers that causes channels to open at Vm and decreases inactivation
3 ways to study channel properties apply selective toxins, express gene for channel (study conductance, gating, kinetics), express wild-type and mutant channels in model organism
4 discoveries made from voltage clamping currents allow flux of MANY ions (large currents), ion move through channels (responsive to electrochemical gradients), K+ and Na+ have separate channels, channels are sensitive to voltage
3 major advances in ion channel research voltage clamping, x-ray cyrstallography, genomic sequencing and clonig
alpha and beta toxins (scorpions) Slow Na+ channel inactivation and cause channels to open at lower Vm
Local Anesthetics (such as cocaine) bind OPEN channels to cause inactivation
Tetrodotoxin (puffer fish and octopus) blocks a few classes of Na+ channels
Saxitoxin (red tide) blocks Na v channels
Brevetoxin (red tide) causes Na v channels to open at lower Vm and inhibit their inactivation
Dendrotoxin (black mamba) blocks Kv 1.1 1.2, 1.6
Charbydotoxin (scorpion) blocks Ca2+ activated K+ channels
Conotoxins (Cone snail)blocks Ca2+ channels
Created by: c.phill