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Immunology

QuestionAnswer
Nonspecific Mechanism exist in all humans to protect against pathogens. Also called Innate Immunity
Skin Nonspefic- filled with waterproof Keratin
Mucous Membranes Contains mucin that blocks attachment of bacteria.
Mucin Found in mucous membranes that blocks bacterial attachment to host cells
Areas of Body with Acidity Vagina-pathogens cannot take hold, Stomach and Bile Acids: kills most microorganisms
Normal Flora Prevents growth of pathogens
Serum Found in Lymph System. Supplies 02 to cells. Remains after formed elements and clotting factors have been removed.
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells that contain oxygen. Ride on Hemoglobin.
Thrombocytes Platelets that are cell fragments. Component of blood clotting mechanism.
Luekocyte White Blood Cell acting as defensive host. Contain five types. Granulocytes and Agranulocyte
Granulocyte have grandular cytoplams, irregular lobed nuclei. Nuetrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils.
A-Granuloctye Lack granules, round nuclei. Monocytes and Lymphocytes.
Percentage of WBC Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil.
Neutrophil Avid phagocyte, Bacterial Infection.
Eosinophil Allergic Reactions and Parasite Infection
Basophil Precurser of mast cell. Found in Allergies and inflammatory (swelling)
Monocyte Avid phagoctye. Known as Macrophage and occur in recovering from infection.
Lymphocyte Viral Infection. Specific Immunity- T Cells and B Cells.
Avid Phagocytes Monocyte ( Large) and Neutrophil (Small) and Macrophages (RES)
Reverse Diff lymphocytes exceed nuetrophil
Process of Phagocytosis (5) 1) P. attaches to bacterium, assisted by oposins. 2) Psuedopodia surround bacterium 3)Bacterium is brought into cytoplasm and vacuole is formed. 4) Phagolysosome forms. 5)Bacteria disintegrates through lysosomal enzymes. 6)Egestion
Mast Cells Are basophils that have migrated into tissue. Release Histamine. Associated with Anaphlaxisis (Bee stings) RA, and Allergies, MS.
Inflammation Response Bodys response to tissue damage. Symptoms are heat, redness, swelling, and pain. 1)Histamine is released, causes blood vessel dilation 2)LP factor released, phagocytes destroy bacteria 3) Pus forms at site (Only is bacterial) 4) Abscess
NK Cells take out abnormal cells such as cancer or viral cells.
Interferon Protein released from Virus, caused adjacent cells to produce antiviral protein which interferes with virus replication.
Complement Enhances phagocytosis, produces inflammation
Opsonin attachment of certain proteins to microbes, increasing a phagocyte's ability to adhere to the pathogen.
T Cells Direct cell to cell contact. Supresses Memory or Killer Cells. Found in Cellular Immunity. Enhances binding to a macrophage.
B Cells Found in Humoral Immunity. (Blood and Body Fluids) Makes antibodies and recognizes foreign objects.
Humoral Immunity Mediated by B Lymphocytes. Releases antibodies. Effective against bacterial toxins and viruses.
Cell-Mediated Immunity Involved with T Cells. Resist infection. presented on macrophages, dendric cells and infected cells. Uses Chemical enhancers such as glyoproteins. (Lymphokines, cytokines)Most effective in clearing viruses.
Specific Resistance Antigens and Antibodies
Antigens Most are protein, glycoprotein or nucleoprotein. Foreign object in body that creates immune response. found on surface of viruses and cells and capsules, cell wall, or flagella of bacteria
Antibody protein produced in response to an antigen. can bind specifically to an antigen. Produced by Plasma cells (5 types IG-g,a,m, e ,d)
IgG Gamma globin, secondary immune response, can cross placenta
IgA occurs in bodily secretions
IgM largest and primary excreted (first) in imune response
IgE Allergies and Histamine
IgD binds to antigens, Activates B Cells
Primary Response Phagotysis takes place. Memory Cell is established.
Anamnestic Response (secondary) Memory cells recall and release antibodies
Antigen/Antibody Reactions 4 types- Agglutination, Opsonization, Lysis by Complement, and Toxin nuetralization. nature of antigen and kind of antibody to which it reacts
Agglutination Results in clumping
Opsonization Antibodies nuetralize toxins and coat microbes so they can be phagocitized
Lysis by Complement IgM and IgG activate complement which lyse cell membrane
Toxin Nuetralization Antibody complex stops toxin from damaging host
Helper T Cells Activates B cells and other T cells.
Supressor T Cells Keeps immune processes from getting out of hand.
Delayed Hypersensitivity T Cells Responsible for TB skin test or poison ivy reaction. Release various lymphokines that manage marcrophage activity and participate in delayed hyperactivity
Cytotoxic T Cells Kill infected Host cells by making lethal protein
Aquired Immunity Active and Passive. Considered non-hereditary
Active Persons own immune system produces antibodies. 1)Naturally- exposure to infective agent providing immunity rest of life 2)Artifical- Acquired through vaccination or immunization
Passive Ready made antibodies are introduced into body, host's system does not make antibodies. short-term immunity 1)Naturally Aquired- Maternal antibodies from mother to fetus 2)Artifically- Immunoglobins such as ready made antibodies from diff host (rabies)
Toxoid toxin which is produced by specific microorganism is altered in heat or chemical (diphtheria or tetnus)
When person gets influenza vaccine Active-Artifical
Interleukins 1 and 2 specialized cytokines 1)stimulates t cell activation and causes secretion of 2 2)cell division and T Cells
Antitoxin antibody to a toxin-provides protection against toxins by nuetralizing them
HyperImmune Globin Manufactured protein by intorducing paticular antigen into animal & collect serum rich in antibodies
MHC1 and II I- self Antigens II- foreign antigens
Immediate Hypersensitivity Known as Anaphalyxis- harmful result of IgE antibodiesmade in response to allergens. Such as pollen, dust, or mold. Treated by desensitization or IgG blocking antibodies.
Types of Immediate Hypersensitivity (3) 1)Localized: swelling, runny nose, dihharea 2) Respitory Anaphylaxis- hives, mucos filled airways, lead to 3)Anaphylactic Shock- b/v dilate, bee stings, given epiniephrine
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions take more than 12 hrs to develop. Mediated by T cells. Releases lymphocytkines. Such as contact dermatitis and tuberculin. Mom is negative, baby is positive
Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity Antibodies react to antigens interpreted as foriegn to immune system. Ex-Rh factor and blood transfusions
Autoimmune Disorders Person becomes hypersensitive to antigen on cells of their own body. Produce autoantibodies which are used against their own tissues. Supressed T Cell function. Examples: RA, Lupus, MG, Graves, Hashimitos, Ruematic Fever
Rhematoid Arthritis Joints ache. Autobodies attack IgG
Lupus Make anti DNA, butterfly rash, systematic damage
Graves Thyroid-Increase in T4 levels. Caused by goiter (hyper)
Myasthemia Gravis act with aCh and muscle fibers.
Hashimitos cold, gain weight, eat thyroid tissue, deficiency in throxine (hypo)Lack of iodine
Immunodeficieny diseases arise from lack of lymphocytes or defective. Examples-Agammaglobulemia, SCID, AIDS
Agammaglobulinemia lack of B cells in male infants. give gama globin to replace missing antibodies
SCID lacks t and b cells. need germ free environment
Transplant Rejection All humans have set of HLAs (Histocompatability Antigens)- if these antigens are differentm recipient t cells will destroy donor tissue
Third Generation Vaccine contain synthetically produced antigens
Adjuvant Assist in the effectiveness of a vaccine or toxoid
1:40 VS 1:640 As bottom number increases- means antibodies have been produced and a disease is or was active.
Jevenille Diabetes Antibodys wipe out B ? Beta Cells
Lysosome breaks down peptiglycon in bacterial cell wall
What allows blood to clot Serum found in the plasma
Lymph nodes are located in neck groin and armpits and peyers patches in intestines
Pus Dead nuetrophil
Herd Immunity Must be 90%
Hepatitis B is Third generation
MMR and Varicella Roster Live 1st, Attenuated
Specific containes Cellular and Humoral
Nonspecific contains Phagocytes, normal flora, and skin barriers
Calor heat
Rubor redness
tumor swelling
dolor pain
Created by: p88cne1 on 2007-10-26



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