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7th Grade

Mr. Hardcastle's 7th Grade Texas History Flashcards

geography the study of the earth, its physical features, and its people
trend a general movement toward change over the course of time
climate the expected weather condition at a place,usually over a period of years
census a periodic count of the population
drought a lond period of dryness that causes damage to crops or, prevents their growth
precipitation moisture that falls from the sky in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail
reservior an artificial lake where water is collected for use
landforms a feature of the earths surface, such as a hill, valley, river, or plain
relative location the postion of a place, or in comparsion, to another place
absolute location the exact postion of a place on the earth
physical environment the external surrondings and conditions in which something exists
migrate to move from one place to another
region geographical area characterized by shared features
latitude the location north or south of the equator
longitude the location east or west o the prime meridrian
hemisphere one half on the earth, divided by the equator into northern and sothern halves
equator the imaginary line at 0 degrees latitude that divides the earth into a northern half, northern hemishphere, and a southern half, the southern hemisphere
prime meridian the imaginiary line at 0 degrees longitude
scale the relationship between the distance on a map and the actual distance it represents
cartographer a person who makes maps
projection the transfer of an image of curved surface onto a flat surface
physical map a general-purpose map that shows the natural features of an area
topography the physical features of the arths surface and their relationship to one another in terms of location and elevation
polictical map a general-purpose map that shows recognized boundaries in an area
physical-polictical map a general-purpose map that shows both the topogrphy and recongiezed boundaries of an area
legend a explanation of a maps symbol and scale
plains a wide area of flat or gently rolling land
physical geography the physical features of the earths surface
human geography the features of the earth that are created or changed by humans
settlement a place where people live
tributary a stream that flows into a larger stream or other body of water
subregion a smaller division of a geographic region
escarpment a cliff or aprupt break in the land's surface
growing season the average number of days between the last killing frost of spring and the first killing frost of fall
steppe a vast, treeless plain
aquifer an underground layer of porous rock containing water
metropolitan area a city and all the areas around it that depends on the central city
suburb a smaller community just outside a city
industry the activity of making of preparing products for sale
per capita income the average amount of income per person per year in a given area
heritage beliefs and customs that people get from their ancestors
5 largest cities in Texas Houston, San Antonio, Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth
Three Historic Time Periods Paleo-Indian, Archaic, Late Prehistoric
Prehistoric Before written history
Culture the pattern of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and traits that characterize a group of people
extinction state or condition of no longer existing
Civilization a culture with a complex social structure and developments such as cities, trade, govenrment, art, writing, and science
Meso America an area of ancient civilization in what is now Central America
Aztecs developed a complex numbering system
social sturcture the way a society is organized
nomads one who moves from place to place with no permanent home
Karankawas rubbed aligator or shark grease on their bodies to ward off insects
adobe a brick or other building material made of sun-dried earth and straw
Europeans thought of the Native Americans as inferior and made them give up their way of life
treaties contract or agreement between nations or peoples
Diseases Killed off many of the Native Americans
Buffalo most important animal to the Native Americans
descendant a person born of a certain family or group
expedition a journey undertaken by a group of people with a definite purpose
Columbus three ships Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
4 Number of voyages Columbus took
colony a land claimed for and controlled by a distinct nation
October 12, 1492 Land was first sighted by Columbus and his men
Bahamas present day location where Columbus first landed
King and Queen who funded Christopher Columbus' voyages Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
conquistadors a Spanish explorer who searched for wealth and land in the Americas
First European to observe the Texas coast Alvarez de Pineda
Cabeza de Vaca First Europeans to explore the interior of Texas
Viceroy governor of a colony who rules in the name of the king
Friar person belonging to one of the religious brotherhoods of the Roman Catholic faith
pueblo Native American village of houses built of adobe, or sund dried brick of straw and clay
Coronado reached Palo Duro canyon
1682 First Spanish Mission in Texas
Corpus Christi de la Ysleta first spanish mission near present day El Paso
mission Spain's main tool to colonize Texas
missionary one who is sent to do religious or charitable work in a territory of foreign country
La Salle claimed Louisiana for King Louis 14th
buccaneer a pirate, especially one who preyed on ships during the 1600's
failed to record the exact location of the mouth of the Mississippi River The mistake La Salle made
Who killed La Salle his own men
Alonso de Leon named several rivers in Texas including the Nueces, Medina, and Hondo Rivers
presidio a miltary post or fortified settlement in an area under Spanish control
1718 mission San Antonio de Valero is established (present day Alamo)
Chicken War war between France and Spain that included chickens
St. Denis married the presidio commander's granddaughter
de Aguayo sent to reestablish Spanish authority in East Texas
Canary Islanders built the first school in Texas
alliance an association between people to advance their common interests
hacienda a large estate or ranch in Spanish territory
4 types on Spanish settlements missions, presidios, towns, ranches
Daily life in the missions consisted of.... prayers, instruction in Catholic faith, eating, working
commissary a store where military personnel can buy equipment and food
civil settlements a village made up of people who were neither priests nor soldiers
vaqueros a livestock herder or cowhand
liberation the act of becoming free
Father Hidalgo called for liberation from the Spanish crown, "Grito De Delores'
January 22, 1811 Las Casas declares the Mexican state of Texas independent from Spain
G.T.T. Gone to Texas
Anglo-American people whose ancestors moved from one of many European countries to the United States and who now share a common culture and language
immigrant a person who comes to a country to settle
empresario an agent who makes all arangements to bring settlers to a colony
filibuster an adventurer who engages in a private rebellious activity in a foreign country
George Morgan first empresario to recruit settlers from the U.S.
Philip Morgan first filibuster in Texas
Stephen F. Austin first filibuster in Texas
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1607 Jamestown
location of Jamestown Virginia
important crop in Jamestown tobacco
the lost colony roanoke
Tejano a person of Mexican descent living in Texas
Missouri place where the Spanish allowed Anglo Americans to settle
15 million cost of the Louisiana Purchase
Two things the settlers had to do to be allowed to settle in Spanish territory pledge loyalty to Spain, and practice Catholic faith
Muldoon Catholics dishonest converts who became Catholic only to obtain land
"Mother of Texas" Jane Long
"Father of Texas" Stephen F. Austin
"Grandfather of Texas" Moses Austin