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Anatomy and Phis


Integumentary Hair, skin, nails
Skeletal Bones, joints
Muscular System Muscles
Nervous system Spinal Cord, Nerves, Brain
Endocrine Throid, Pituitary Glands, Pancreas, Ovary, Testes, thymus.
Cardiovascular Heart, blood vessels
Lymphatic System Lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, thymus
Respiratory Lungs, Bronchus, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Nasal cavity
Digestive Stomach, liver, intestines, Rectum, anus, esophagus.
Urinary Bladder, Urethra, Ureter, Kidney
Reproductive Prostate, Penis, testes, Scrotum. Mammary Glands,ovary, vagina, uterus.
Levels of organization Chemical-> cellular-> tissue-> Organ-> Organ system.
Studies the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another. Anatomy
Concerns the function of the body, in other words, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities. Physiology
8 Functions necessary for life 1. Maintain boundaries 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness 4. Digestion 5. Metabolism 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction 8. Growth
Inside stay distinct from outside Maintain boundaries
Activities promoted by the muscular system Movement
Sense changes in the environment Responsiveness
breaking down of food Digestion
All chemical reactions that occur within body cells metabolism
Removing waste excretion
Cells divide and are used in growth and development Reproduction
increase in size, body or organism Growth
Blood clot sending a message to the body for more platelets. Positive Feedback
body thermostat that tells your body to cool or heat. Negative Feedback
Detects the charge Receptor
determines the set point where the variable is maintained. Control Center
Provides the means for the control center's response Effector.
Line the cavity wall. Parietal Serosa
Folds in on itself and covers the organs in the cavity. Visceral Serosa
Ex. Water. No carbon is all organic. Produced by non-living natural processes. Form salts. Contain metal atoms. Inorganic
Carbon, covalently bonded. Created by living things. Carbon-hydrogen bonds. Organic
High heat capacity, High heat of vaporization, Polar Solvent Properties, Reactivity, Cushioning. Water
All ions are electrolytes substances that conduct an electrical current in solution. Ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than the hydroxyl ion. Salt
Substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts. Proton donors. Acids
Proton acceptors. They take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts. Bases
pH below 7 are acidic= hydrogen ions outnumber the hydroxyl ions. pH higher than 7 are alkaline. The concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids is measured in concentration units. pH
bind to other molecules to form a polymer. Monomers
long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides
cellular site is the cytoplasm. part of a group of molecules known as the nucleic acid. Essential for life. Ribose sugar and phosphate group. RNA
cellular site is the nucleus. Nucleic acid containing the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. Carry genes. Structural purposes. DNA
consists of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. Protein
is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. polypeptide
during dehydration synthesis a hydrogen atom is removed from one monomer and a hydroxyl group is removed from the monomer it is to be joined with Dehydration
peptide bonds linking amino acids together are broken when water is added to the bond. Hydrolysis reaction
through Hydrolysis. Adding water to split polymers Break down of polymers
4 levels of structure of proteins Primary, secondary, tertiary, Quaternary
linear sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain. Primary Structure
twisting or bending of linear amino acid chains upon themselves (Alpha Helix, beta-pleated sheet) Secondary Structure
regions of secondary structure fold upon themselves to produce a compact, globular structure. Tertiary Structure
two or more polypeptide chains aggregate in a regular manner to form a complex problem. Quaternary Structure
Prevents incorrect folding of polypeptide chains, Aiding the desired folding and association process, helping to translocate proteins across the cell membranes, promoting the breakdown of damaged/denatured proteins. Molecular Chaperones
Enzyme= Catalyst accelerate the rate of a reaction but not used up or changed in the reaction.
DNA Major cellular site=Nucleus. Genetic Material, directs protein synthesis, replicates before cell division. Sugar=deoxyribose. Bases= Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine. Double stranded coiled into a double helix.
RNA Major cellular site= cytoplasm. Carries out genetic instructions for protein synthesis. Sugar= ribose. Bases= uracil instead of thymine. Single strand, straight or folded.
Transport, Mechanical, and chemical work ATP in the cell
ATP phosphorylates transport proteins, activating them to transport solutes (ions, for example), across cell membranes. Transport Work
ATP phosphorylates contractile proteins in muscle cells so the cells can shorten. Mechanical Work
phosphorylates key reactants, providing energy to drive energy-absorbing chemical reactions. Chemical Work
fragile barrier, outer boundary. A lipid bilayer of phospholipds, some cholesterol and glycolipids-dynamic fluid structure. plasma membrane
Membranous organelle, sausage-shaped, "power plant" provides most of the cell's ATP. Busy cells have 100s of them. Carries out multistep aerobic (requires oxygen) cellular respiration. Metabolites broken, oxidized, and converted to ATP. mitochondria
subunits, sites for protein synthesis. ribosomes
Covered with ribosomes that make proteins. "membrane factory"- makes integral proteins and phospholipids of cell membranes rough endoplasmic reticulum
Free of ribosomes, lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and detoxification. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
stack of smooth membrane sacs, "traffic director" for new proteins- packages and modifies new proteins. Sends new proteins to plasma membrane, lysosomes, or secretion. Golgi apparatus
acid hydrolases, perform intracellular digestion, and bud from the Golgi apparatus. lysosomes
contain oxidase enzymes, detoxify toxic substances, and are self-replicating. peroxisomes
-(Microfilaments_ strands of actin, muscle contraction and movement, (Intermediate filaments) part of desmosomes, resist mechanical forces on cell, (Microtubules) cylindrical, made of tubulin, support cell, allow movement. cytoskeleton
Paired cylindrical bodies, each composed of nine triplets of microtubules, organize microtubule network during mitosis, form the bases of cilia and flagella. centrioles
cells control center surrounded by nuclear envelope; contains genetic information. Nuclear envelope has double membrane, regulates passage of substances to and from nucleus. nucleus
site of ribosome subunit production. Nucleolus
histone proteins and associated DNA- the genes. Chromatin
Function: enzymes, also mechanically function- changing cell shape during cell division and muscle contraction, or link cells together. peripheral
Function: transport, form channels so small molecules or ions can move through lipid bilayer, serve as carries. integral membrane proteins
Special Membrane Junctions Tight, Desmosomes, gap
Impermeable junction encircling the cell, prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells. tight junctions
anchoring junctions or "guy wires" prevent tearing of cellular sheet. desmosomes
allow chemicals to pass between adjacent cells. gap junctions
Transport Process Simple diffusion, Facilitated, osmosis, filtration, active transport, phagocytosis, exocytosis, Bulk-phase endocytosis, Receptor-mediated endocytosis.
nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer. Simple diffusion
(1) the transported substance binds to protein carriers in the membrane and is ferried across (2) the transported substance moves through water-filled protein channels. Facilitated Diffusion
The diffusion of a solvent, such as water, through a selectively permeable membrane. Occurs whenever the water concentration differs on the two sides of a membrane. Osmosis
molecules are not moving "randomly" but are forced to the "other side" Filtration
like carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transported substances. Active transport
Type of endocytosis in which the cell engulfs some relatively large or solid material, such as a clump of bacteria, cell debris, or inanimate particles. Phagocytosis
Vesicular transport processes that eject substances from the cell interior into the extracellular fluid. exocytosis
Cell ingests small patches of the plasma membrane and moves substances from the cell exterior to the cell interior. bulk-phase endocytosis
main mechanism for the specific endocytosis and transytosis of most macromolecules by body cells, and it is exquisitely selective. receptor-mediated endocytosis
Solutions that are more dilute (contain a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes). Cells take on water by osmosis until they become bloated and burst. hypotonic Blood cell
Solutions with the same concentrations of the nonpenetrating solutes as those as those found in cells. Cells retain their normal size and shape. isotonic blood cell
with a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than seen in the cell. Cells lose water by osmosis and shrink. Hypertonic blood cell
Generate and maintain a resting membrane potential. The barrier that keeps the ions apart is the plasma membrane. Plasma Membrane contributes to Membrane potential
Growth, Growth and DNA Synthesis, Growth and final preparations for division. Checkpoint. Interphase
Mitosis= Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. Cytokinesis. Mitotic
cell formation to cell division (growth phase). interphase
DNA replicates S phase(during interphase)
(cell division) to create two new daughter cells identical t0 parent. M phase is mitosis
DNA copied so identical copies of the cell's genes can be passed on to offspring. DNA unwound and strands separated by helicase, DNA polymersae builds new complementary strands. DNA Replication
DNA segment (gene) specifying one polypeptide uncoils, and one strand acts as a template for synthesis of a complementary mRNA molecule. Each 3-base DNA triplet corresponds to an RNA codon. transciption
mRNA (newly transcribed) from the nucleus attaches to ribosome. Transfer RNA (tRNA) transports amino acid to the mRNA strand, recognizing the mRNA codon calling for its amino acid by base pairing with it via its anticodon. translation
Ribosome moves along mRNA as each codon read. Each amino acid added is bonded to the next by a peptide bond. Polypeptide released once stop codon read. translation
Cellular location. Replication= Nucleus, Transcription= cytoplasm, translation= nucleus
DNA or RNA gives a code for a polypeptide genes
RNA codons or DNA codons. mRNA, read during synthesis Genetic Code
Created by: 721107708