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ANSC Test 1 Review

History of the domestication of animals, and Genetics

Abraham Maslow is famous for what chart? The Hierarchy of Needs
Define domestication. Animals under the control of men throughout their lives. Animals which are dependent upon men for protection or food.
When was the first animal domesticated? 12,000 BC
What parts comprise the non carcass, or offal of an animal? Hide, Reproductive Tract, Head, Digestive Tract, Blood, Viscera
What is the dressing percentage of an animal? The portion of the live weight that becomes the carcass, or; DP= (Carcass Wt/Live Wt) x 100
Define cutability. The portion of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts. The portion of the carcass that is muscle.
What is the formula to calculate the cutability of a carcass? Retail Cut/Carcass Wt.
Define yield grades. Indicators of cutability
Define quality grades. Indicators of palatability
What are the components of palatability? Tenderness, juiciness and flavor
What is a chromosome? self-replicating genetic structure of cells containing the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide the linear array of genes
What does it mean to be homologous? corresponding in the type of structure and derived from a common primitive origin
What is a gene? the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
What is a locus? the place on a chromosome where a gene is located
What is an allele? genes occupying corresponding loci in homologous chromosomes that affect the same hereditary trait but in different ways
What is mitosis? process in which the cell undergoes replication and division into two daughter cells; reproduction of somatic cells
What is meiosis? production of gamete cells
What is a gamete? male and female reproductive cells otherwise known as the sperm cell and the egg cell
What is a zygote? the cell formed by the union of two gametes
What is a diploid? two chromosomes
What is a haploid? one chromosome
Define 2n. another way of saying diploid
Define 1n. another way of saying haploid
What does it mean to be homozygous? an individual whose genes for a specific trait are alike
What does it mean to be heterozygous? an individual that possesses unlike genes for a particular trait
What are Mendel's two laws (based on genetic patterns)? Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment
What is the Law of Segregation? chromosome pairs; seperate during gamete formation
What is the Law of Independent Assortment? allele pairs seperate independently during gamete formation
What does it mean to 'crossover'? random trait crossing during gamete formation
Define dominant. gene that overpowers the expression of its recessive allele
Define recessive. gene that has its phenotype masked by its dominant allele when the two genes are present together in an individual
What does "simply-inherited" mean? usually one gene; usually an either/or Ex: horned/polled
What does it mean to be polygenic? more than one gene code for a trait
How many chromosmes does a human have? 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs
Define genotype. genetic make up of an animal
Define phenotype. physical appearance
Created by: jollygnt7